Training and Development

Training and Development

Training and development is a formal process of changing employee behavior and motivation in a way that will enhance employee job performance and the organization's overall performance.

T & D increases employee job-related abilities by distributing job-related knowledge, creating job-related skills, and improving positive attitudes.

T & D need = Desired performance – Actual performance

Advantages for Employees

  • New knowledge and skills – employee got opportunities to acquire new knowledge.
  • Greater confident – employee got necessary knowledge and skills from this it will help them to face any challenges in their job environment.
  • Higher possibility of granting promoted – well training employees can easily get promotions.
  • Higher rewards – employee can take salary incremental and incentives because of their training.
  • Adjustments – when employee trained well, it helps to adjust the processes.
  • More job security – Organization like to keep employees who are trained well.
  • Increase motivation and satisfaction – Because of training and development automatically the employee will be motivated.


  • On-the-job training - This is given by allowing the trainee to perform the duties of the job. Also, employees learn while they are performing the duties of their jobs. Senior people guide them.
  • Apprentice training - This is given to people who are new to the job. For example plumber, mechanist, carpenter, etc.
  • Simulated training/ Vestibule training - Giving in an artificial place which is similar to the actual workplace.
  • Programmed instruction – Provide a study guide for self-study. Trainees learn through self-study. Also, this involves distance learning by using computers, internet, textbooks, etc.
  • Critical incident method – Especially for managerial employees. Short description of the very important incident that involves a problem to be sorted.

Factors affecting when selecting T & D methods

  • Cost – Consider about budget. As an example no need to pay more money for the lecturer.
  • Number of trainees – Based on the number of participators they should select methods.
  • Objective of training – By considering the objective should select the method. Also, one should consider where to give knowledge or human skill improvement.
  • Availability of competent trainers – for example critical incident method and case study method need more expert trainers.
  • Availability of time – According to the available time should select suitable method.
  • Types of trainees – here should consider about those employees are managerial or non-managerial employees.